Serverless development just got easier — today’s release of Cloud Firestore with event triggers for Cloud Functions combine to offer significant developer velocity from idea to production to scale.

I’ve worked on dozens of mobile and web apps and have always been dismayed by the amount of boilerplate code needed to shuffle data between client and server and implement small amounts of logic on the server-side. Serverless APIs + serverless compute reduce the amount of code needed to write an app, increasing velocity throughout the development cycle. Less code means fewer bugs.

Cloud Firestore + Cloud Functions with direct-from-mobile access enabled by Firebase Auth and Firebase Rules combine to deliver something very new in this space. Unhosted Web apps are also enabled by Web SDKs.

It is not a coincidence that I’ve worked on all of these technologies since joining Google last year. My first coding project at Google was developing the initial version of the Firestore UI in the Firebase Console. I then stepped into an engineering management role, leading the engineering teams that work on server-side code where Firebase enables access to Google Cloud.

Cloud Firestore

  • Realtime sync across Web and mobile clients: This is not just about realtime apps. Building user interfaces is substantially easier: using reactive patterns and progressively filling in details allows apps to be ready for user interaction faster.
  • Scales with the size of the result set: Simple apps are simple. For complex apps, you still need to be thoughtful about modeling your data, and the reward is that anything that works for you and your co-workers will scale to everyone on the planet using your app. From my perspective, this is the most significant and exciting property of the Cloud Firestore.
  • iOS, Android and Web SDKs

Cloud Functions

  • Events for create, write, update, and delete (learn how)
  • Write and deploy JavaScript functions that do exactly and only what you need
  • You can also use TypeScript (JS SDKs include typings)

All the Firebase things

  • Free tier and when you exceed that, you only pay for what you use.
  • Zero to planet scale: no sharding your database, no calculating how many servers you need, focus on how your app works.
  • Secure data access with Firebase Rules: simple, yet powerful declarative syntax to specify what data can be accessed by client code. For example, some data may be read-only access for social sharing or public parts of an app, user data might be only written by that user, and some other data may be only written by server-code.
  • Firebase Auth: all the social logins, email/password, phone or you can write code for custom auth
  • Lots more Firebase things

All this combines to allow developers to focus on building an app, writing new code that offers unique value. It’s been a while since I’ve been actually excited about new technology that has immediate and practical use cases. I’m so excited to be able to use this tech in the open for my side projects, and can’t wait to see the serious new apps…..

Disclaimer: I work at Google. This article is based on 18 years of observing the company as an outsider, along with over a year of experience as a senior technical leader at the company.

An internal google document was published this weekend, where an individual articulated poorly reasoned arguments that demonstrated conscious bias, both about gender and about the skills necessary for software engineering. Demeaning generalizations and stereotypes were presented as unbiased fact. The author may not have intended to be disrespectful, yet caused great harm. Many women have spoken publicly about their frustration in reading this harmful rhetoric in their workplace.

For many years before I joined Google, I heard stories of sexism and racism that happened inside the company. Frankly, I know of no company which is immune to this. Companies believe they have well-established social norms around respectful behavior, good management training, effective escalation paths, etc., yet these aren’t evenly distributed. In 2006, I declared that I would not work at Google because of their hiring practices. In 2016, I decided that both Google and I had changed a bit since then. I interviewed Google even more than they interviewed me. Not including the actual day of interviews, I had 21 conversations with 17 different people before deciding to work here.

Unexpectedly, Google was the first tech company I have worked for where I didn’t routinely meet people who expressed surprise at my technical ability. There seems to be a positive bias that if you work for Google you must be technically awesome. I can’t tell whether this is universal. (I assume it isn’t. Google is a big place.) However, as evidenced by this latest rant, Google has a long way to go in creating effective social norms around discussing diversity and the efforts to make hiring and promotion fair.

We need to be careful as we address inequities. As a woman who attended private high school and studied Computer Science at a prestigious university, I have an advantage in getting a job at any tech company over a white man who joined the military to pay for college and taught himself to code. Google could, if it wanted to, hire the very best women and people of color such that it statistically matched the demographics of the United States, and not “lower the bar” yet still be homogeneous, yielding limited benefit from its diversity efforts.

Diversity and inclusion is not just about demographics. The lack of minorities and women at Google and most other tech companies is a sign that things aren’t quite right. We should look at diversity numbers as a signal, and then seek to address underlying problems around inclusion and respect. We need to include effective communication skills as part of selection criteria for new engineers and for promotion.

Ex-Google engineer Yonatan Zunger wrote a thoughtful response about how communication and collaboration are critical to the work we do. I have also written more generally about how communication is a technical skill: “We usually think of software as being made of code, but it is really made of people. We imagine what the software should do, and through our code, we turn ideas into reality…. I find it confusing that anyone could even suggest that communication is a different skill that is optional for programmers. This is what we do. We write our code in programming languages. We define things and then they exist. We make real things using language.”

I’ve worked with amazing engineers who have little else in common. The best engineers I’ve worked with solve problems differently from each other — creativity and insight combined with technical skill are the mark of a great engineer.

The Google hiring process tests for the candidate’s ability to write code and solve problems (and to some degree talk about code). This is not enough. Google and the rest of the industry needs to set a higher bar for hiring talent. It is much harder to collaborate effectively and communicate your ideas than it is to write a basic algorithm on the whiteboard.

In my experience, the ability to write great software is not tied to any outward trait, and discussion of biological or societal differences is a distraction from the core issue. We need people with a diversity of experience and perspectives to bring creative solutions to their work, and we need engineers who can work with people who are different from them with respect and enthusiasm.

I know there are good people working inside of Google to make change. I applaud the publication of research on effective teamwork. This is not enough. This work of creating change for humans is much harder than the work of writing software. Smaller companies have a greater opportunity to make change faster. We each need to step up and take a leadership role at every level of our organizations.

Impact matters more than intent.

At Google I/O last week, we presented how to build robust mobile applications for the distributed cloud about building mobile apps in this new world of “serverless development.” When people hear “serverless” sometimes they think we can write code on the server that is just like client-side code, but that’s not really the point.

We have many of the same concerns in developing the code that we always have when we write client-server sofware — we just don’t need to manage servers directly, which drastically reduces operational challenges. In this talk we dive into some specific software development patterns that help us write robust code that scales well.


  • Sarah Allen (me!) I lead the engineering team that works at the intersection of Firebase and Google Cloud on the server side.
  • Judy Tuan introduced me to Firebase over 5 years ago, when she led our team at AngelHack SF (on May 3, 2012) to build an iPhone app that would paint 3D shapes by waving your phone around using the accelerometer. That event happened to be Firebase’s first public launch, and she met Andrew Lee who convinced her to use Firebase in our app. She’s an independent software developer, and also working with Tech Workers Coalition.
  • Jen-Mei Wu is a software architect at Indiegogo, and also volunteers at Liberating Ourselves Locally, a people-of-color-led, gender-diverse, queer and trans inclusive hacker/maker space in East Oakland.

Jen-Mei kicked off the talk by introducing a use case for serverless development based on her work at the maker space, which often works to help non-profits. They are limited in their ability to deploy custom software because they work with small organizations who are staffed by non-technical folk. It doesn’t make sense to set them up with a need to devote resources to updating to the underlying software and operating systems needed to run a web application. With Firebase, the server software is automatically kept up to date with all the needed security patches for all of the required dependencies, it scales up when needed, and scales down to zero cost when not in active use.

The primary use case that motivated the talk from my perspective is for businesses that need to get started quickly, then scale up as usage grows. I found it inspiring to hear about how Firebase supports very small organizations with the same products and infrastructure that auto-scale to a global, distributed network supporting businesses with billions of users.

The concept for this talk was for some real-world developers (Judy and Jen-Mei) to envision an application that would illustrate common patterns in mobile application development, then I recruited a few Firebase engineers to join their open source team and we built the app together.

Severless Patterns

We identified some key needs that are common to mobile applications:

  • People use the app
  • The app stores data
  • The app show the data to people
  • There is some core business logic (“secret sauce”)
  • People interact with each other in some way

The talk details some of the core development patterns:

  • Server-side “special sauce”
  • Authentication & access control
  • Databinding to simplify UI development

The App: Hubbub

Ever go to a conference and feel like you haven’t connected to the people you would have liked to meet? This app seeks to solve that! Using your public GitHub data, we might be able to connect you with other people who share your technical interests. Maybe not, but at least you’ll have lunch with somebody.

You authenticate with GitHub, then the app creates a profile for you by pulling a lot of data from the GitHub API. Your profile might include languages you code in, a list of connections based on your pull request history or the other committers on projects that you have contributed to. Then there’s a list of events, which have a time and place, which people can sign up for. Before the event, people will be placed in groups with a topic they might be interested in. They show up at the appointed time and place, and then to find their assigned group, they open a beacon screen in the app which shows an image that is unique to their group (a pattern of one or more hubbubs with their topic name) and they find each other by holding up their phones.

We built most of the app, enough to really work through the key development patterns, but didn’t have time to hook up the profile generation data collection and implement a good matching algorithm. We ended up using a simple random grouping and were able to test the app at Google I/O for lunch on Friday. Some people showed up and it worked!

You can see the code at:

Many thanks to all the people who joined our open source team to develop the app:

and who helped with the presentation:

  • Virginia Poltrack, graphics
  • Yael Kazaz, public speaking, story-telling coach
  • Puf and Megan, rehearsal feedback
  • Todd Kerpelman our Google I/O mentor
  • Laura Nozay and all of the wonderful Google I/O staff who made the event possible