I’m debugging an issue where my app uses a library that requires me to dynamically link with an openssl library. What’s more I’m debugging it on an old linux version. Sigh.

gdb to the rescue!

After figuring out how to build openssl from source, I stumbled upon a gdb trick… suppose you are using a fairly standard open source library (like openssl) and you want to debug something that uses it (some other library that doesn’t work over ssl), gdb will let you know if there’s an easy way to download the symbols! Just type gdb + library name.

Here’s an example

gdb openssl
GNU gdb (GDB) Red Hat Enterprise Linux (7.2-92.el6)
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu".
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
Reading symbols from /usr/bin/openssl...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
Missing separate debuginfos, use: debuginfo-install openssl-1.0.1e-57.el6.x86_64
(gdb) quit

Now I can use this command to install the debug symbols for the specific version of openssl that is installed on this system:

debuginfo-install openssl-1.0.1e-57.el6.x86_64

then I can debug my app looking at how it calls openssl. In the gdb session below, I first set a breakpoint in main, and run to that point…

(gdb) b main
(gdb) run
Starting program: /home/builder/src/app 
warning: no loadable sections found in added symbol-file system-supplied DSO at 0x7ffff7ffa000
[Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]

Breakpoint 1, main (argc=4, argv=0x7fffffffe698) at sample.cpp:226
226         LOG("Here I am in main!")

now the openssl library is loaded and I can set a breakpoint in it:

(gdb) b SSL_CTX_set_verify
Breakpoint 2 at 0x7ffff7734bb0: file ssl_lib.c, line 2040.
(gdb) c
Continuing.
Creating connection object
[New Thread 0x7ffff4bd6700 (LWP 53)]
Connecting to server/app URL: rtmps://live-api-s.facebook.com/rtmp/

Breakpoint 2, SSL_CTX_set_verify (ctx=0x62efe0, mode=1, cb=0x7ffff7acb6c0 <SecuredConnectionIO::VerifyCallback(int, x509_store_ctx_st*)>)
    at ssl_lib.c:2040
2040        ctx->verify_mode=mode;

I can look at variables or all of the function arguments:

(gdb) p mode
$1 = 1
(gdb) info args
ctx = 0x62efe0
mode = 1
cb = 0x7ffff7acb6c0 <SecuredConnectionIO::VerifyCallback(int, x509_store_ctx_st*)>

How cool is that?

Rust has a “community of developers empowered by their tools and each other” (via Katharina Fey in “An async story“). The Rust community helps each other through effective narrative documentation and attention to error messages, and the robust tooling around Rust drives momentum, overcoming some of the natural hurdles when diving into a new language.

Here’s my list of essential rust tools (so far):

The basics

rustup

The default tool when you install rust.

Rust has very good offline documentation (perfect for learning on long plane trips!). See rustup doc help for full list. Here are some highlights:

rustup doc --book              # Rust Programming Language book
rustup doc --rust-by-example   # collection of runnable examples
rustup doc --std               # Standard library API documentation

cargo

Cargo packages Rust code into crates. You can find published libraries at crates.io. After getting familiar with cargo.toml file which streamlines development and enables reproducible builds, I found command line management easier with cargo-edit:

cargo install cargo-edit
cargo add <crate>         # also provides rm, upgrade

Rust and Web Assembly

The Rust Wasm tooling has improved dramatically over the past year — wasm-pack is the “one-stop shop for building, testing, and publishing Rust-generated WebAssembly.” The rustwasm book is very good.

cargo install wasm-pack

rust-parcel

I’ve grown to dread building modern web apps with their complex JavaScript build tooling. In learning Rust, I discovered Parcel which lets you import .rs files from JavaScript. Under the hood, it compiles Rust to Web Assembly and hooks it all up into a tidy js src reference for my index.html. Simply breathtaking.

Parcel tool chain is idiomatic for NodeJS folk. npm run start will run a local server and watch your files.

npm init rust-parcel hello-rust-parcel
cd hello-rust-parcel

When you build your web app, it automatically prints out the kinds of things you should want to know. For many uses of Rust, compiled code size doesn’t matter, but for Web apps, it is important to keep an eye on download size:

npm run build

> create-rust-parcel@0.0.2 build /Users/sallen/src/rust/hello-rust-parcel
> parcel build index.html

✨  Built in 3.20s.

dist/rust_parcel_bg.d1b79d09.wasm    67.63 KB     13ms
dist/js.caa35af8.js.map              14.65 KB     11ms
dist/js.caa35af8.js                   7.49 KB    2.58s
dist/Cargo.8d29e058.toml              1.17 KB    1.16s
dist/index.html                         228 B    999ms

wasm on the edge?

Interesting to note that Web Assembly isn’t just for client-side browser code. WebAssembly on Cloudflare Workers creates potential for new edge capabilities.

TBD

I’m just scratching the surface as I learn Rust. My practical applications range from native client and server code, command-line tools along with my early Web app experiments. I don’t expect Rust to be my goto language for everything, but it’s fun to dive in and explore as I climb the steep learning curve of getting my code to reliably compile!

For people ahead of me on your Rust adventures, what essential tools am I missing?

Last night I attended ScalaBridge London. I met one student who had recently studied computer science and decided to focus on Scala because of all of her classes she enjoyed functional programming the most. Another student works with SAS (Statistical Analysis Software) and wanted to learn a new language for her own professional development.

The group was in the middle of a six week series, which is a neat format that they are trying out for the first time. This gives students the chance to get to know each other and work together in a cohort, diving deeper into practicing the language over time.

I was there at the kind invitation of Noel Welsh, since I am visiting London and organizing a London Bridge event on May 28th to introduce all of the local groups to each other. I took the opportunity to learn a little Scala too.

The students had progressed to learning structural recursion and one student showed a colorful Sierpinski triangle and explained how she generated the colors. In the photo below, you can see Noel acting as a low-tech projector, holding up the laptop, so the new Scala engineer could talk about her work.

Man holding laptop with graphic of triangles and woman smiling

Learning a little Scala coding

At first I was a bit skeptical of using graphics to learn a language which was not designed for that purpose, but the experience won me over. The concrete visualization of code is helpful and I found it as delightful as I did when I first learned basic on an Apple II many years.

I learned that Scala is strongly typed functional programming language that is light on syntax, not requiring characters at the end of statements and whatnot. Using the SBT console I made a little drawing, defining my own color purple and creating a value to reuse some code for each eye:

val purple = Color.rgb(80.uByte, 0.uByte, 150.uByte)
val eye = circle(10) fillColor Color.black on circle(20) fillColor Color.cornflowerBlue

The Creative Scala curriculum uses the Doodle library which has easy-to-use layout methods beside, above, below, on, and under. So I could write eye beside eye the same way that I can write 1 + 2. Like Ruby, operators are methods, and I could have written eye.beside(eye) or 1.+(2).

I overlaid the two eyes on a blue head, and attempted to create a mouth below:

(circle(10) fillColor Color.pink below eye beside eye 
on circle(50) fillColor purple).draw

pink circle mouth below left eye

Oops! This was not intentional, and ended up as a sweet graphical illustration of operator precedence — easily fixed by adding parentheses:

(circle(10) fillColor Color.pink below (eye beside eye) 
on circle(50) fillColor purple).draw

pink circle centered below both eyes

I think my logic error may have been a happy accident, since I think the lop-sided face is more expressive. In any case, the graphics made debugging fun — thanks Noel!